Although it negatively affects the cosmetic appearance, it causes discomfort such as itching, redness, and burning. It is characterized by dry, itchy, red, and inflamed skin that can sometimes be accompanied by blisters or scaly patches. Eczema can be triggered by a number of factors, including genetics, environmental factors, and immune system dysregulation.
What are the symptoms of Eczema?
Eczema disease, which is very common among people and can occur for various reasons, generally shows the same symptoms in all sick individuals. Some of these symptoms can be listed as follows;
- Dry skin
- Bubble formation
- Skin flaking, crusting, and rash
- Dandruff on the scalp
- Skin cracking
What causes Eczema?
The exact cause of eczema is unknown. Inheritance in families indicates that the disease is a genetic link. It is also linked to asthma and allergies. The disease is thought to occur, possibly as a result of a change in the proteins in the skin that leads to eczema.
Some triggers can make eczema worse, such as stress, a hot or cold environment, dry air, certain fabrics, or detergents.
There are several factors that can contribute to the development of eczema, including:
Genetics: Eczema tends to run in families, and certain genes have been identified that increase the risk of developing the condition.
Immune system dysregulation: Eczema is believed to be caused in part by an overactive immune system, which leads to inflammation and damage to the skin.
Environmental factors: Exposure to certain substances, such as harsh soaps or chemicals, can trigger eczema symptoms in some people. Allergens such as pollen, mold, dust mites, and animal dander can also trigger eczema symptoms.
Stress: Emotional stress can exacerbate eczema symptoms in some people.
How Is Eczema diagnosed?
The dermatologist can diagnose eczema based on the findings of the examination and the symptoms on the skin.
In addition, some allergy tests, such as the skin prick test and blood test, may be requested to detect some allergic conditions that are common in people with eczema.
What are Eczema diagnostic methods?
Eczema is a limitation whose symptoms are not hard to miss. The eczema ceremony, anamnesis (patient history), physical examination, skin prick test, and patch test are performed.
Information store about personal care products, cosmetic products, soap, detergent, or other chemicals that come into contact with the skin, especially when taking anamnesis, known as the patient's history. For diagnosis, patient history should be supported by physical examination organs such as swabs, rashes, and fluid-filled tubes.
If there is any doubt that the cause of eczema is a warning substance, a patch test is applied. Patches containing more than one allergen are adhered to the patient's back. After 2–3 days, the patches are checked to see if the layers show results. In the patch test, a series of thin metal or plastic cups in strips are used. Each pane contains a small amount of warning. The allergens to be used in the test are chosen by the doctor depending on the spread of eczema, migration, and substances exposed daily for long periods of time. The test panels are applied to the back and closed with tape. The location of each allergen is then recorded. The taped panels are left in place for about two days to allow the body to recognize and react to possible stimuli. Patients can perform their daily routine while wearing the panels. However, the person needs to exercise, avoid showering, and avoid other activities that could wet the bands. After two days, the panels are removed, not the areas that are irritating. Final results may not be recorded for up to four days, so delayed results can also be observed. In the final reading, an examination is made to match the representations of the titles in the volume to the relevant articles. It may also continue to break wherever any of the tested alerts are located. This can help you identify the source of the protective measures and confirm the fine skin tract.
Skin Prick Test (SPT)
SPT is recommended as the primary method in the diagnosis of allergic and IgE-mediated competitors. This method has the characteristics of being targeted, fast results, good tolerability, and clearly showing its attackers. SPT should only be performed by trained and stored personnel in centers suitably loaded to treat systemic product variants (anaphylaxis). The responsible medical doctor should observe and read the test results along with the history and physical examination. This method of getting eczema is done by the internal processes of the forearm. Certain allergenic substances are dripped onto the skin, and a structure is formed over a sterile lancet. After waiting for a while, substances consisting of redness and tassels are formed as stimulants.
A small piece of skin needs to be removed for some laboratory tests. This procedure, called a biopsy, is usually only performed if doctors are unable to diagnose the disease during a physical exam or patch test. The doctor uses a local anesthetic to numb the skin. A scalpel, sharp knife, or stapler is used to remove a small portion of the rash. The area with the biopsy is covered with a bandage and heals within a week. Dermatologists examine the skin cells under a microscope in the laboratory. Whether the rash is eczema or dermatitis, or the possibility of a skin condition different from the expense, is determined by this examination. It usually takes three to seven days for the biopsy results to come out.
What Is Good For Eczema? How Is Eczema Treated?
The measures to avoid eczema or to make the attack periods lighter can be listed as follows;
- Care should be taken not to scratch or irritate the eczema spot.
- The place must have sufficient heat and humidity.
- The environment should be ventilated frequently.
- The frequency of bathing should vary according to the season. It is necessary to take care of taking a bath every other day.
- Soft fibers and washcloths should be used, and baths should not be made with boiling water.
- The use of neutral soap should be preferred.
- After bathing, moisturizer should be used.
- To prevent eczema, immunity should be strengthened.
- Hands should be moistened frequently.
- Hands should be washed with warm water and dried.
- Gloves should be used while cleaning.
- In winter, woolen clothes should not be in direct contact with the skin, and should be worn over combed cotton or underwear.
- Items that trap dust, such as woolen or fleece carpets and blankets, should especially stay away from the room where they sleep.
- Stress should be avoided as much as possible.
- Raw vegetables and fruits, meat, and fish products should not be touched with bare hands.
- Attention should be paid to a healthy and balanced diet.
- An adequate amount of water should be drunk throughout the day.
- The eczema diet prescribed by the physician should be followed.
How Is Eczema Treated?
There is no definitive cure for eczema; However, with the treatments applied, it is possible to protect the skin, relieve itching, and prevent or control inflammation and infections.
The goals of a comprehensive treatment are:
Prevention of Skin Damage
Moisturizers that will prevent excessive fluid loss, drying, and cracking of the skin and moisturizers that will strengthen the skin barrier can be used in the treatment.
Reducing the Inflammation Reaction
People with eczema generally have dry, red, and itchy areas of inflammation on their skin. In order to prevent these inflammatory reactions, some superficial creams containing steroids are used.
When superficial creams are not strong enough, broader treatments such as:
- Oral or intravenous corticosteroid-containing treatments
- Other drugs that can prevent the immune system from overworking
- Phototherapy: treatment of skin lesions using ultraviolet lights
Antihistamines have long been used as the main treatment for itching. It helps patients sleep more comfortably through the night.
Antibiotics can be used if the cracks on the skin surface become infected. Do not neglect to use your medications regularly, unless otherwise stated by your doctor.
In addition to these, patients benefit from lifestyle changes such as using products recommended for sensitive skin types, avoiding woolly and tight-fitting clothes that can increase itching, which you can consult with your doctor about.
Is Eczema Contagious?
Eczema is a chronic disease that starts in childhood and is a precursor to diseases such as asthma and hay fever in later life. Eczema disease is seen as intense itching due to drying of the skin and is not a contagious disease.