Who Gets Glaucoma?

Glaucoma may be related to genetics. People with a family history of glaucoma are at higher risk of developing it. In other words, one or more genes may be defective, and these individuals may become more susceptible to the disease.

People over the age of 40 have an increased risk of glaucoma.


Causes of Glaucoma

  • Patients with diabetes and hypothyroidism (goiter) are at higher risk of developing glaucoma.
  • Serious eye injuries can cause elevated intraocular pressure. Other risk factors include retinal detachment, eye tumors, and eye inflammations such as chronic uveitis or iritis. Some eye surgeries can also trigger the development of secondary glaucoma.
  • Long-term use of cortisone (as drops, oral or skin ointment, etc.) may cause the development of secondary glaucoma.
  • People with high intraocular pressure from glaucoma are at higher risk of the disease. However, this does not necessarily mean that it will result in glaucoma.
  • Thin corneal thickness is a risk factor for the disease.
  • The risk of disease increases with age.
  • It should be taken into account that the disease can also occur due to hereditary reasons.
  • Glaucoma may also be related to genetics. People with a family history of the disease are more likely to develop it. These people should have regular checkups once a year.
  • Smoking is a risk factor for many retinal diseases as well as glaucoma.
  • Long-term cortisone treatments are a risk factor.
  • High-grade hyperopia and myopia increase the risk of developing glaucoma.

It is important for people with these characteristics to have regular eye examinations for early detection of optic nerve damage.

What are Eye Pressure (Glaucoma) symptoms?

Unfortunately, there are no signs or symptoms in the early stages of glaucoma.

  • Headaches and pain around the eyes caused by the difference in the release of intraocular fluid during the day are expressed by some patients.
  • In addition, patients sometimes complain of temporary blurring of vision when their intraocular pressure increases during the day, and they report seeing rings around the lights.
  • Feeling of stiffness in the eye,
  • Pain only when pressed into the eye is also a complaint of some patients.
  • However, glaucoma can cause painful red eyes in individuals with a subtype of hyperopia refractive error we call "angle-closure glaucoma." Patients with this symptom should immediately consult an ophthalmologist.
  • Congenital glaucoma, another subgroup, is another symptom expressed by careful parents.


What Factors Increase Glaucoma Risk?

  • Having a family history of glaucoma (genetic predisposition)
  • Being over 40 years old
  • Diabetes
  • Severe anemia or shocks
  • High-low systemic blood pressure (body blood pressure)
  • High myopia
  • High hyperopia
  • Migraine
  • Long-term cortisone therapy
  • Eye injuries
  • Racial factors

Since the risk of developing glaucoma is higher than normal in people with these characteristics, these people should have regular eye examinations for early detection of damage to the optic nerve.


How Does Eye Pressure Drop?

Eye pressure does not decrease with a number of measures that the patient takes himself. In order to reduce eye pressure, either drops or surgery are required. Sometimes, eye pressure can be controlled with some laser operations.

Does Eye Pressure heal completely?

Glaucoma is an eye disease that can be controlled, and the progression of the disease can be stopped. However, the person diagnosed with glaucoma should continue their lifelong follow-up and treatment.

Does Eye Pressure cause headaches?

Eye pressure (glaucoma) can cause headaches. However, eye pressure must be too high for it to cause a headache. Normal eye pressure is considered to be below 21 mmHg. It usually does not cause pain in the eye until the eye pressure rises above 35–40 mmHg. However, when the eye pressure rises above 50 mmHG, it usually causes both eye pain and a headache.


How is eye pressure (glaucoma) treated?

Eye pressure (glaucoma) cannot be completely cured and eliminated after diagnosis; however, in many cases, it can be successfully controlled with appropriate treatment, and the progression of vision loss can be prevented.

There is a headgear in the treatment of glaucoma;

  1. Medication
  2. Laser therapy
  3. Surgical treatment

If the eye pressure does not decrease despite medication or laser treatment and the disease continues to progress, the treatment method will be mostly surgical.

What are the simple rules that the patient should follow in the treatment of eye pressure (glaucoma)?

  • The most important issue is to use your eye drops at the time recommended by your doctor. Thus, you can remember the time of your eye drops more easily, and at the same time, you will provide a more effective intraocular pressure drop, which prevents the disease from getting worse.
  • Eye drops used to lower eye pressure have certain systemic side effects. In this context, if you notice any side effects that affect your daily life, such as respiratory distress or an irregular heartbeat, contact your eye doctor immediately. Your doctor will direct you to another alternative.
  • Do not forget to go to the control examinations determined by your doctor! Your disease can only be treated under the regular supervision of your doctor.
  • Be sure to warn your ophthalmologist about the presence of an additional systemic disease. If you are taking medications, be sure to find out if these drugs have an interaction with your eye drops.
  • When you go to another doctor (a heart doctor, a family doctor, or a doctor of another branch) other than your eye doctor, you should definitely inform your doctor that you have glaucoma.
  • Consider that glaucoma may be inherited, and in this context, warn your first-degree relatives to have a comprehensive eye examination, including eye pressure measurement.

The most important issue to remember is: do not neglect to have your visual field examinations with the recommendation of your ophthalmologist in order to detect early visual field loss that may be caused by glaucoma.

It should be noted that glaucoma is a progressive disease that requires lifelong treatment.