The eye of healthy people consists of three main layers. These layers are sclera, uvea and retina. The sclera is the outermost layer of the eye and gives the eye its white color. The uvea is located in the front part and provides nourishment to the organ through blood vessels. 
The innermost part is called the retina layer. This is the area where the cells responsible for vision are located. The retina contains cells called photoreceptors, which are responsible for transmitting the light coming into the eyes to the nervous system. 
Photoreceptor cells, which are of two types, cone and rod, are sensitive to the light reaching the eye. The light reaching the eye is transmitted to the retina with the help of the cornea and the lens. 
The cone and rod cells that the light reaches convert this light into signals to be transmitted to the nervous system. 
When these signals are transmitted to the brain by nerves in the eye, vision is realized. In its simplest form, this is how eyes work. 

Research has shown that rod cells are responsible for seeing in the dark by distinguishing the shapes of objects and only black and white colors, while cone cells are involved in providing clarity to the image and perceiving colors. Cone cells come in 3 types, specialized for the colors red, green and blue.

In some cases, due to various conditions, the cone cells in the retina, which are responsible for color vision, may be missing. Or the cone cells may be damaged. In such cases, the person may not be able to perceive some colors. Or in cases where more than one color is present together, the person may not be able to see the difference in colors. This condition is called color blindness. 

Depending on how the cone cells are affected, color blindness is examined in three different forms. These forms can be summarized as follows: 

  • 1. Red - green color blindness: It is the most common form of color blindness. In this form, the patient cannot distinguish between red and green colors. 
  • 2. Blue - yellow color blindness: In this form, patients cannot distinguish between blue and yellow colors. 
  • 3. Achromatopsia: In this very rare form, the patient cannot perceive any color and sees their surroundings in black and white.

What Causes Color Blindness?

The basis of color blindness is a decrease in the number of cone cells sensitive to certain colors, or the inability of these cells to function. Certain conditions and disorders can result in color blindness. Conditions that can cause color blindness can be listed as follows:

  • Genetic
  • Glaucoma
  • Macular degeneration
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Optic nerve damage
  • Multiple sclerosis

Symptoms of Color Blindness

The inability to distinguish some colors encountered in daily life is the most obvious symptom of color blindness. 
Children may have difficulty learning some colors during the color learning period. Some patients may have difficulty distinguishing important signs such as traffic lights. In addition, in some cases, color blindness may develop later. If you notice that you have difficulty distinguishing colors in your daily life, you should consult a physician immediately.