The pancreas constantly produces more insulin to compensate for the increased glucose levels in the blood and to break the resistance built up in the cells. This causes blood sugar levels to rise over time.
Insulin resistance syndrome, which is seen to affect one out of every three people on average, can lead to medical problems such as obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and type 2 diabetes.
Causes and Risk Factors of Insulin Resistance
People with a family history of insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes are more likely to develop insulin resistance due to genetic factors.
However, environmental factors such as a sedentary lifestyle away from exercise and a diet high in calories also contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Muscle, fat, and liver tissues are the tissues most affected by insulin resistance. Factors that increase the risk of insulin resistance
Things that can make this condition more likely include:
- Especially the presence of fat in the abdomen,
- sedentary lifestyle,
- carbohydrate-heavy diet
- gestational diabetes,
- Health conditions such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and polycystic ovary syndrome
- family history of diabetes
- To smoke,
- Advanced age, especially after the age of 45,
- Hormonal disorders such as Cushing's Syndrome and acromegaly
- Medications such as steroids, antipsychotics, and HIV drugs
- Sleep problems such as sleep apnea
What Are the Symptoms of Insulin Resistance?
When individuals show insulin resistance, they usually do not show any obvious symptoms or signs. To detect insulin resistance, it is necessary to have a blood test that measures blood sugar.
Similarly, tests for other conditions that are part of the insulin resistance syndrome, such as high blood pressure, low "good" cholesterol levels, and high triglycerides, should be done and the results reviewed by medical professionals.
In order to diagnose insulin resistance under normal conditions, at least three of the following items should be considered:
- Waist circumference is 95 cm in men and 80 cm in women.
- 130/80 and above blood pressure values,
- Fasting glucose or sugar level above 100 mg/dL
- Fasting triglyceride level above 150 mg/dL
- HDL cholesterol levels below 40 mg/dL in men and below 50 mg/dL in women
- Patches of skin called Acanthosis nigricans and patches of dark, velvety skin
How Is Insulin Resistance Diagnosed?
To diagnose the presence of insulin resistance in an individual, the doctor will first question the individual's family medical history. However, it will weigh the individual, measure the height, and determine the body mass index value. He or she will then check your blood pressure.
As a result of these measurements, if the person has the potential for insulin resistance, blood tests will be performed. These blood tests include the fasting plasma glucose test, the oral glucose tolerance test, and the hemoglobin A1c test.
Fasting plasma glucose test subjects should not eat anything for at least 8 hours. After these eight hours, blood glucose values are measured.
After the fasting glucose test, an oral glucose tolerance test is performed. After the fasting sugar test, a sugary solution is drunk, and two hours later this blood test is done.
The hemoglobin A1c test shows the average blood sugar level over the past 2–3 months. The value of this level is used by doctors to diagnose prediabetes or diabetes.
This also helps you see if your diabetes is under control. Retesting may be required to confirm the results of this test.